beaufort 1713

Detail from Mercator-Hondius Map 1610 [i1]
“The Indians who inhabited the Core Sound area before the white settlers arrived were of the Coree tribe. Most likely they were of the Iroquoian family, as were their more numerous Tuscarora neighbors. Little is definitely known about the tribe. It may be assumed that they were once a rather numerous group, but by the time of the arrival of settlers into their area, their number had been reduced by intertribal conflicts to the extent that John Lawson, surveyor-general of North Carolina, described them as having only twenty-five fighting men during the first decade of the eighteenth century.

Detail from John Lawson's 1709 Map of Carolina [i2]
“Before white settlers entered their area, the Coree had two villages. One of these was located on the north side of the Straits of Core Sound which separates Harkers Island from the mainland, a location not more than seven miles east of the present site of Beaufort nor more than eight miles north of Cape Lookout. The other village was located on the west side of Newport River, but the exact spot cannot be given…
 
“Farnifold Green obtained the first patent for land in the Core Sound area. The patent was granted December 20, 1707, and although Green did not live in the Core Sound area, other settlers were soon making their homes there. In 1708 John Nelson was granted a patent for 260 acres “in Core Sound on the north side of North River,” and, from that time on, was closely connected with that immediate area. 

"Francis and John Shackleford moved into the area from Essex County, Virginia, sometime after 1705. Francis became active in the affairs of the Core Sound area by 1708, as did John by 1709. Both of these men received numerous patents before 1713 but settled on the west side of North River about four miles northeast of the present site of Beaufort. Other names connected with the Core Sound settlement prior to 1713 were John Fulford, Robert Turner, James Keith, William Bartram, Peter Worden (also spelled Wordin), Thomas Blanton, Thomas Lepper, Thomas Sparrow, Lewis Johnson, Richard Graves, Christopher Dawson, Enoch Ward, Thomas Cary, and Thomas Kailoe. Some of these, notably Cary and Lepper, lived elsewhere and were only speculating in land. Fulford, Ward, and Turner, though, were definitely Core Sound residents during that period.

Detail from 1710 "Plan of the City of New Bern"
 von Graffenried's "Corsound" notation [i3]
“Indications are that the Core Sound settlement [had] some importance before 1713. A notation on Christoph von Graffenried’s map of 1710 described Core Sound as being populated almost entirely by Englishmen who furnished seafood of all kinds to the settlers. In 1712 Captain Edward Adlard owned a sloop named the ‘Core Sound Merchant,’ which indicated trade in the area before that date. A third indication of the importance of the Core Sound settlement before 1713 is that in 1712 in the midst of the Tuscarora War, the General Assembly ordered a garrison stationed at Core Sound. The purpose of the garrison, so Governor Thomas Pollock declared in 1713, was ‘to guard the people there from some few of the Cores [Indians] that lurk thereabout....’

Green's 4th Great-Grandson
“As soon as settlers moved into the Core Sound area, the port potential of the future site of Beaufort was recognized. December 20, 1707, Farnifold Green obtained a patent for the south end of the peninsula that extends between North River and Newport River. One month later, January 21, 1708, Peter Worden, then of Pamlico River, secured a patent for 640 acres on the west side of North River, part of which was included in Green’s patent. By October of that year, Worden recognized Green’s ownership, and on October 30, 1708, he cleared Green’s title by giving him a deed for ‘one certain Messuage or tenement of Land situate lying and being on the South side of North River, near to the Point of Land called Newport Town, with all its rights and privileges....’ In seeking to acquire the land, evidently the two men had its port potential in mind since Topsail Inlet, now known as Beaufort Inlet, penetrated the barrier of the Outer Banks just two miles south. The site was called "Newport Town" and the name of the river that flows by it on its west side was changed from Core River to Newport River.

1713 Plat of Beaufort [i4]
“Possibly the Tuscarora War of 1711-1713 delayed the establishment of a town within Topsail Inlet. Within seven months after the power of the Tuscarora Indians had been broken in March, 1713, a town was laid out on the southwest corner of the tract of land which Farnifold Green had obtained in 1707. In the meantime, Green had sold the land to Robert Turner, a merchant of Craven Precinct. Sometime prior to the fall of 1713, permission had been obtained from the Lords Proprietors to lay out a town by the name of Beaufort at this site, and on October 2, 1713, Robert Turner had Richard Graves, Deputy Surveyor, lay out the town. A plat was made of the town by Graves and recorded in the office of the secretary of the colony. Streets were named; allotments were provided for a church, a town-house, and a market place; and lots were offered for sale. On that date, October 2, 1713, Beaufort came into existence. Though minor alterations were made throughout the Colonial period, the main characteristics of the plan of the town never changed. 

1726 Whaling License [i5]
"The name Beaufort came from Henry Duke of Beaufort, one of the Lords Proprietors, who in 1713 was Palatine of Carolina, the chief position among the Proprietors. Turner Street obtained its name from Robert Turner, the father of the town. Moore Street was probably named for Colonel James Moore, who seven months before had brought an end to the Indian war. Pollock Street was named for Thomas Pollock, Acting Governor of the colony from 1712 to 1714. Both Queen and Ann Streets were named in honor of the then reigning monarch of England, while Orange Street honored the memory of William III of Orange who had preceded Queen Anne on the English throne. Craven Street was named in honor of William Lord Craven, another of the Lords Proprietors. When all of these names are considered together, the year 1713 is clearly indicated.

Moseley's 1733 Map - Detail [i6]
“Though the town of Beaufort was laid out in 1713 with the permission of the Lords Proprietors, it was not officially incorporated by the Colonial government until ten years later. In the meantime, on October 19, 1720, Robert Turner had sold the 780 acres, which included the town lands, to Richard Rustull for 150 pounds sterling and had moved to the Pamlico River area, which might indicate that his investment was not yielding satisfactory returns. 
"At least 39 lots were sold during this period, and in 1722, when Carteret Precinct was created, Beaufort was chosen to be the site of its courthouse. The only indication of the size of Beaufort during the period is found in connection with a visit made by the pirates, Edward Teach and Stede Bonnet, to Beaufort harbor in 1718. Charles Johnson, who described this visit in his History of the Pirates, spoke of a ‘poor little village at the upper end of the harbour....’ Undoubtedly, this little village was Beaufort...

"Numerous lots were sold in Beaufort immediately after it was laid out, but few of the purchasers made their homes in the town. As late as 1765 it was described as a town of not more than twelve houses. About 1765, however, settlement became more substantial, and in the next few years efforts were made to give Beaufort more of the atmosphere of a well-ordered town.”1 

Detail Moseley's 1733 Map [i7]
Designated as a Port of Entry:
 At a council held at Edenton the 4th of April Anno Domi 1722
….An Instrument from the Lords Proprietors Constituting and appointing the Town of Beaufort a port for the unloading and discharging Vessels &c was read and allowed of.
2 


Incorporated: 
LAWS OF NORTH CAROLINA 1723
An Act, for Incorporating the Seaport of Beaufort, In Carteret Precinct, Into a Township, by the Name of Beaufort.
Whereas, a certain Plot of Ground, being Part of a Tract of Land, in Core Sound, late belonging to Robert Turner, Esq. but now the property of Richard Rustel Esq. was formerly laid  out into a Township, by the name of Beaufort Town, with proper Allotments for a Church, a Town-house, and a Market place, as by a Draught thereof, upon Record in the Secretary’s Office, doth,, and may, more fully and at large appear: And whereas the true and absolute Lords Proprietors of Carolina, upon the Petition of the Inhabitants of Core Sound, now called Carteret Precinct, have erected the same, into a Seaport, by the Name of Port-Beaufort, and have invested the same with all Privileges and Immunities belonging to a Seaport: Therefore, for the Encouragement of the said Town, and the due Encouragement of the Trade and Commerce thereof, and the Parts adjacent, 

I. We pray that it may be Enacted, And be it Enacted, by his Excellency the Palatine, and the rest of the true and Absolute Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina, by and with the Advice and Consent of the rest of the Members of this present General Assembly, now met at Edenton, for the North-East Part of the said Province, and it is hereby Enacted, by the Authority of the same, That the said land, as it is already laid out, together with as much other Land lying contiguous and most convenient to the said Town to compleat a Township, as shall make the Whole Two Hundred Acres reserving to the Owners thereof the Property of such Lots as was sold, in Fee-simple absolute, by the said Turner, be, and it is hereby and henceforth invested in Richard Rustell, and Christopher Gale, Esq., John Nelson, Joseph Bell and Richard Bell, or any Two of them, to and for the Uses aforesaid, and Declared, Confirmed and Incorporated into a Township, by the Name of Beaufort, with all the Privileges here after expressed, for ever.

II. Pursuant to which, It is hereby Enacted, That the Places already laid out for a Church, a Town-house, and a Market Place, be reserved for those Uses; and that the rest of the land not already laid out, be forthwith laid out into Lots of Half an Acre each, with convenient Streets and Passages, by the said Trustees, or any two of them. Provided always, That the Principal Streets of the said Town shall be Sixty Six Feet wide, at least.

III. And be it further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That the said Richard Rustel, Esq., shall be the present Treasurer and Receiver  of the Monies arising by the Sale  of the said Lots; and on his Death or Departure out of the Government, then the first Commissioner shall succeed, and be Treasurer for the Time being, he giving Security to the Justices of the Precinct Court, that he will be accountable for  the  Monies he shall receive, according to the Directions of this Act.

IV. And be it further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid. That every Person whatsoever who is willing or desirous to be an Inhabitant of the said Town, shall have Liberty to take up any Lot or Lots so laid out as aforesaid, and not before taken up; which Lot or Lots the Commissioners aforesaid, or any two of them, are hereby directed, required, and impowered, to grant, convey and acknowledge, to the Persons so taking up the same, and his Heirs and Assigns, for ever, in Fee-simple, upon Payment of Thirty Shillings Consideration Money, for each Lot, whereof Twenty Shillings shall be paid to Richard Rustel, Esq.; the Owner of the said Land, and to his Heirs and Assigns, and the other Ten Shillings shall be for the  purchasing Great Guns, and for Fortifying the said Towne; and shall be paid, by the Treasurer aforementioned, into such Hands as the Governor or Commander in Chief for the Time being shall appoint to oversee the said Work. Provided always, That what Person soever shall take up and have conveyed to him any Lot or Lots as aforementioned, and shall not build, or cause to be built thereon, within two Years after the Date of  the said Conveyance, a good substantial habitable  house, not of less Dimensions than Twenty Feet in Length, and Fifteen Feet Wide, besides Sheds, or make preparation for so doing, as the Court of the Precinct, by View of any Two or more of them, shall judge reasonable to secure the same, every such Conveyance shall be, and it is hereby declared void and of none effect, as if the same had never been made; and then the said Lots or Lots shall be free and clear for any other Person to take up and Purchase. Provided also, That all Monies arising by the Second or other Sales of the said Lots, shall be, and is hereby appropriated to the Use of the Parish; first, for the building of a Church, and afterwards, to such other Uses as the Church-wardens and Vestry shall think fit.

V. And be it further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That the Commissioners aforesaid, or any Two of them, shall have full Power and Authority, and they are hereby impowered, required, and commanded, to remove all Nuances within the Limits of the said Town: And That no Persons, Inhabitants of the said Town, or holding Lots there, shall enclose t he same or keep the same enclosed in the said Town, under a common Stake-Fence; but every Lot or Lots so enclosed, shall be either paled in, or done with Post and Rails set up.

VI. And be it further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That the Church for the said Precinct of Carteret, hereafter declared to be the Parish of St. John, and the Court-house for the same, shall be built in the said Town: And the Justices of the said Precinct for the Time being, shall have full Power and Authority to levy, or cause to be levied, any Sum or Sums of Money, not exceeding One Hundred Pounds in the whole, upon the Inhabitants or Estates in the Precinct aforesaid, for and towards the erecting and building the Court-house aforementioned, as soon as the Circumstances of the Inhabitants will admit of raising the said Sum. 

VII. And as a further Encouragement to the Settlement of the said Town; Be it further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That all Musters for the Precinct of Carteret, Elections of Burgesses, and all Business and Affairs of the like Nature which properly belongs to the said Precinct, shall be taken, done, and transacted within the said Town of Beaufort, and in no other Place or Places whatsoever. 

VIII. And be it further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That all Per-Liquors which are, bona fide, the Growth, Product, and Manufacture of the Precinct of Carteret, shall and mail be retailed in the said Town, for the space of Ten Years next after the Ratification of this Act, by any Freeholder or Inhabitant of the said Town, without any License or other Permit for so doing; subject nevertheless to the several Penalties, Forfeitures, and Restrictions, as by the Law, intituled, Ordinary keepers how to sell, and made and provided.

IX. And be it further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That all Persons Possessors or Owners of Lots in the said Town, shall, and they are hereby obliged, within Two Years after the Ratification of this Act, to clear all such Lots held and possessed by them, from all Manner of Wood, Underwood, Brush, or Grubs, that are or may be offensive to the said Inhabitants and shall keep and maintain the same, from time to Time, and at all Times hereafter, as often as need shall require; under the Penalty of Five Shillings for every Month the said Lots shall lie uncleared after the Expiration of the Time aforesaid, To be recovered before One Justice of the Peace, and applied, One Half to the Informer, and the other Half to the Vestry, for the use of the Parish.

X. And be it further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That in Case of the Death or Departure out of the Government of any of the Commissioners aforesaid, the remaining part of the Commissioners together with the Justices of the Court, are hereby fully Authorized and impowered to make choice of some Person or Persons to succeed such Commissioner or Commissioners so, dying or departing as aforesaid; which Person or Persons so Elected and Chosen, shall be, and they are hereby invested with as full Power and Authority, to all Intents and Purposes whatsoever, as the present Commissioners now herein nominated and appointed, that so the full number of Commissioner may be always kept up and full.

XI. And whereas the said Town of Beaufort, and Parts adjacent is made a Precinct, divided from Craven, by the Name of Carteret Precinct; Be it therefore Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That the said Precinct be, and it is hereby erected into a Parish, by the name of St. John’s Parish, and that the following persons be, and they are hereby appointed Vestrymen of the said Parish, viz. Christopher Gale, Esq., Joseph Bell, John Shaw, John Nelson, Richard Whithurst, Richard Williamson, Richard Rustell, John Shackleford, Thomas Merriday, Enoch Ward, Joseph Fulford, Charles Cogdail, Which said Vestrymen shall be, and they are hereby invested with all such Privileges and Authorities, and subject to the same Penalties and Forfeitures, within the said Parish as in and by an Act, intituled, An Act, for establishing the Church, and appointing select Vestries, is and are given to the Churchwardens and Vestry of the several and respective Parishes in the said Act mentioned.

XII. And be it further Enacted, by the Authority aforesaid, That whosoever shall be found guilty of quarreling or fighting in the said Town or Township, or in any other Town or Township which now is, or hereafter shall be laid out within this Government, in the View of any Justice, or shall be thereof convicted, by the Oath of One creditable Witness, shall forfeit and pay, for every such Offence, the Sum of Ten shillings, and for Want of such Payment, shall Suffer Twenty Four Hours Imprisonment in the common Gaol, or else be set in the Stocks, for the space of Two Hours, at the Discretion of  the Justice, provided that the Information be made within Twenty four Hours after such Offence shall be committed: And in Case of any Justice of the Peace shall neglect to do his duty herein either upon View, or information to him made, he shall forfeit and pay the Sum of Twenty Shillings, to the Uses last above mentioned.

EDWARD MOSELEY, Speaker.                         WILLIAM REED, Esq., President.
CHR. GALE,
M. MOORE,
JOHN LOVICK,
T. POLLOCK,
    Lords Proprietors Deputies 3 


Sauthier Map - 1770 [i8]
Footnotes:
1 Charles L. Paul, Colonial Beaufort:The History of a North Carolina Town, Thesis History 1965.
2 Colonial Records, Saunders, Vol. II, page 454
3 State Records of North Carolina, collected and edited by Walter Clark, Vol. XXV, Laws of North Carolina 1723, Page 206 – 209




Images: 
i1 Mercator-Hondius Map 1610. Virginia and Florida, North Carolina Maps, North Carolina State Archives, North Carolina Collection at UNC-Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

i2 John Lawson, 1709. To His Excellency William Lord Palatine; The most Noble Henry Duke of Beaufort; The Right Honoble. Iohn, Lord Carteret; The Honoble Maurice Ashley, Esq., Sr. John Colleton Baronet; Iohn Danson, Esq; And the rest of the True and Absolute Lords Proprietors of Carolina in America. This Map is Humbly Dedicated by Ion. Lawson Surveyor General of North Carolina. North Carolina Maps, North Carolina State Archives, North Carolina Collection at UNC-Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

i3 Detail from "Plan of the City of New Bern" 1710, Christoph Von Graffenried's Account of the Founding of New Bern, edited by Vincent H. Todd, Raleigh: Edwards & Broughton Printing, 1920. docsouth.unc.edu

i4 1713 Beaufort Town. North Carolina Office or Archives and History.

i5 1726 Whaling License issued to Samuel Chadwick. North Carolina Office or Archives and History.

i6 1733 Moseley Map detail, North Carolina Office of Archives and History.
i7 1733 Moseley Map insert, Port Beaufort or Topsail Inlet.

i8 1770 Sauthier Map, North Carolina Maps, North Carolina State Archives, North Carolina Collection at UNC-Chapel Hill, NC, USA.